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In book four there is explicit discussion about the soul and how it relates to the discussion of the city. The different classes are given corresponding levels in the soul. However, even though the soul is explicitly discussed, one has to wonder whether this too is part of the larger idea of the soul in relation to justice. *Even though justice for the individual is explicitly defined, is this justice for the people of the perfect city, or justice for how people in any city should command their souls?
In 441a, Plato quotes Socrates as saying that the soul has two main levels, “the calculating and the desiring.” He continues on to say that there must be a third since there are three in the city. From this assertion comes the third level of spiritedness. The levels of the soul are originally named in this order. There is no assertion as to which is the greatest, or ruling, level and which are obedient.
Following this is a quote from the Odyssey used in 441b. This quote has already appeared in the Republic with relation to speeches involving famous men that must be heard. At this point in the Odyssey, Odysseus is controlling his heart, which is being driven by anger with the desire to kill the suitors. He calms the desire with his word, a seemingly calculating measure. *Where does Odysseus fall in relation to both the classes of the city and the organization of the soul based on this passage alone? If he is able to function aside from desire and control the natural spiritedness, then he must be of an upper level guardian in the city. *Agree or disagree? It also seems that this ability to harmonize the different levels shows that he has a very firm grasp of creating the whole from the parts, allowing the calculating level of his soul to control. *Agree or disagree? *Also, is this quote from the Odyssey a fair addition to the argument? Since it had been referenced earlier as an important speech to be heard in the education process, it seems to have valid placement again here. The calculating level uses word and reason as Odysseus dose in this quote. Therefore the quote provides a valid example of how this organizational theory has been utilized and deemed successful.
Continuing on, in 442a the list of the levels has changed order. Now, it is finalized that calculating, spiritedness, and then desire is the proper order of the levels in the soul. In 441e Socrates says that the calculating part is to rule and the spirited is to be obedient. When the desiring is discussed, it is placed below the previous two levels. *How does this organization relate to that of the classes?
It is also important to note the use of “nature” in this section. The natures were stated earlier in 435b, in relation to how the city was seen as just. Here, the natures that must be present are, “moderate, courageous, and wise.” On page 111, “prudence” is used in the list in place of “wise.” While the order does seem to change, the values in this idea of virtue seem to remain constant. To me, it seems as though these natures can be directly tied to the levels of the soul as well. For example, be moderate- in desires, be courageous- in spirit, and be wise- in calculation. *Thoughts? *Then, on the subject of nature, in 444d is the nature being described here the nature of the individual or is it meaning how things occur naturally in the world? Also, note 444b where it says “by nature it is fit to be a slave to that which belongs to the ruling class.” “It” refers to the soul, as the sentence refers to the fact that a rebellious soul is not “proper.”
Towards the end of this chapter we come across the definitions of justice as they appear in the situations that have been designed up until this point. In 443b justice is stated as a “power which produces such men and cities” [virtuous men and cities]. In 443d and e, Socrates discusses what in means for a soul to be just. It must come from within the man, there must be moderation, “entirely one from many,” a man must rule himself and not be concerned with the issues of others, and the three levels must be like three notes in a harmonic scale. However, the language used in 444a does make it completely apparent that the justice that they discovered is only “what justice really is in them.”
We also define the opposite of virtue, “vice entire,” in section 444b. This section states that if order is not given and structure enforced, then the “wandering of these parts are injustice, licentiousness, cowardice, lack of learning, and, in sum, vice entire.”

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